Notes on Hebrews (Version1)
(This and more should be found in version 2)


Date and place: Written from Rome (Italy v13:24) about 68 AD

Author: Probably Paul

Possibly second half of Letter to the Galatians

Words: (apx. 7000 words)

Name: "Hebrews" - is appropriate if taken in its prophetic meaning - 'those that crossed over' - (to perfection)

Alternate name: "The Book of Perfection"

Alternate name: "The Teaching About Righteousness" (v.5:13)

Words found:

Perfect, Perfection, Perfecter 11 (51 in Bible)

Righteousness, Righteous 9

Holy 8

Better 11

(all these words indicating the central theme of Hebrews - perfection)

Therefore 16

(indicate a high degree of thematical connectivity - which is contrary to most (all) commentaries)

Words not found:

Jew 0 (218 in NT)

Judaism, Hebrew 0

Typical Commentaries themes of Hebrews:

Major Themes: (LBA)

Christ is superior - Reveals Jesus' true identity as God

High Priest - Jesus is our perfect representative to God

Sacrifice - Jesus' sacrifice was the ultimate fulfillment of OT

Maturity - Through Christ we can live blameless lives

Faith - Confident trust in Jesus' promise of salvation

Endurance - To face trials, stay true, be victorious

Specific comments


""There is no difficulty in locating the major themes of this letter, but it is not easy to see how they all fit together."(pg 46)

"For various reasons this book poses more problems than any other New Testament book." (pg 15)

Notes on God:

Note the differences between God & Son

Note the non-eternal attributes and aspects of the Son (the becoming of Jesus)(and the becoming of the Father)


The definition and concept of God used in this study

"The King of the universe"

"Father God"

"The ultimate authority"

Assuming the above definitions, virtually all commentaries notwithstanding, Jesus is not God and should not be confused with God. Jesus is the only begotten Son. Jesus is divine, he is a member of the Godhead, but calling him, or visualizing him as God goes totally counter to the written word of God, and is very counterproductive to a systematic view of Scripture. You will fail in all attempts to attain 'all truth' if you persist in thinking that Jesus is God. If that isn't bad enough, you should also be aware of this. Calling Jesus God, putting Jesus in the place of God is essentially idolatry. Christianity has made Jesus God and it is suffering for it. Jesus' role is one of a subservient male committed to doing the will of someone outside (above) himself. That is the Scriptural picture of Jesus. Jesus needed a God, he had one, it was not himself. We need a God who is not our self. To confuse these roles will only result in muddled thinking and muddled theology. Of course, for a small child, seeing the roles of king and the prince as one and the same would make very little difference. But for the mature, the difference is very important. Nowhere in Hebrews does it teach that Jesus is God, quite the contrary. "You (the Son) have loved righteousness and hated wickedness; therefore God, your God, has set you above your companions. (v.1:9)


Hebrews was written some time in the last half of the 1st century. It was certainly written to some particular group of people, but there is clear evidence that the subject transcends that chronological time. The obvious message in view by the author has it setting in the prophetic end-of-the-age. It is quite common for Biblical writers to speak and write in this prophetic mode. To speak and to project upon the current generation as if they were at, or entering, the prophetic period in question. .This was true from the beginning. God's prophetic writers have always had this ultimate end in view, the.finale of the human 'work week'. These phrases from various parts of Hebrews show evidence of that prophetic technique.

"last days" (1:2)

"like a garment they will be changed" (1:12)

"world to come" ("about which we are speaking") (2:5)

"till the end" (3:14)

"the powers of the coming age" (6:5)

"the new order" (9:10)

"the end of the ages" (9:26)

Note on Salvation: (v. 2:3)

When Christians hear the word salvation they immediately think of the 'born again' experience or something equivalent. That does not accurately reflect the biblical view of salvation. In general, biblical salvation is corporate and total in nature. It is the ultimate prophetic salvation of humanity and creation from the effects of 'fall' (sin). Hebrews in particular has this universal, ultimate salvation in view. It particularly is dealing with a subset of universal salvation - those who are going to be responsible for ultimate salvation coming into creation. That small group of humans who 'love righteousness', and are also 'set above their companions' (v. 1:9). That corporate salvation is the central theme of Hebrews. Here are some notes on salvation to keep in mind.

Ultimately, there is no such thing as individual salvation - there is no such thing as individual damnation

We individually chose to be part of a group which will be saved or lost.

That is why we see 'holding' areas in the hereafter - Abraham's bosom, paradise, under the alter, Hades, etc.

And nothing impure shall enter the presence of God.

Child version: We are saved, die and go to heaven

Adult version: make choices that assign us to a group - whose character will fully mature in the end-of-the-age, will be tested (perfected, tested and overcome) to determine the groups final outcome and position.

Hebrews is Paul's adult version of the gospel - the corporate gospel

There are three corporate groups. humanity is the base group - some will become super-human (glorified), and some will become sub-human

Justification by faith is an individual experience - it has no counterpart in the corporate sense.

Corporately we are justified by works/actions.


In the past God spoke to our forefathers through the prophets at many times and in various ways, {2} but in these last days he has spoken to us by his Son, whom he appointed heir of all things, and through whom he made the universe.

{3} The Son is the radiance of God's glory and the exact representation of his being, sustaining all things by his powerful word. After he had provided purification for sins, he sat down at the right hand of the Majesty in heaven. {4} So he became as much superior to the angels as the name he has inherited is superior to theirs. {5} For to which of the angels did God ever say, "You are my Son; today I have become your Father " ? Or again, "I will be his Father, and he will be my Son"? {6} And again, when God brings his firstborn into the world, he says, "Let all God's angels worship him." {7} In speaking of the angels he says, "He makes his angels winds, his servants flames of fire." {8} But about the Son he says, "Your throne, O God, will last for ever and ever, and righteousness will be the scepter of your kingdom. {9} You have loved righteousness and hated wickedness; therefore God, your God, has set you above your companions by anointing you with the oil of joy." {10} He also says, "In the beginning, O Lord, you laid the foundations of the earth, and the heavens are the work of your hands. {11} They will perish, but you remain; they will all wear out like a garment. {12} You will roll them up like a robe; like a garment they will be changed. But you remain the same, and your years will never end." {13} To which of the angels did God ever say, "Sit at my right hand until I make your enemies a footstool for your feet"? {14} Are not all angels ministering spirits sent to serve those who will inherit salvation?

(Heb 2 NIV) We must pay more careful attention, therefore, to what we have heard, so that we do not drift away. {2} For if the message spoken by angels was binding, and every violation and disobedience received its just punishment, {3} how shall we escape if we ignore such a great salvation? This salvation, which was first announced by the Lord, was confirmed to us by those who heard him. {4} God also testified to it by signs, wonders and various miracles, and gifts of the Holy Spirit distributed according to his will. {5} It is not to angels that he has subjected the world to come, about which we are speaking. {6} But there is a place where someone has testified: "What is man that you are mindful of him, the son of man that you care for him? {7} You made him a little lower than the angels; you crowned him with glory and honor {8} and put everything under his feet." In putting everything under him, God left nothing that is not subject to him. Yet at present we do not see everything subject to him. {9} But we see Jesus, who was made a little lower than the angels, now crowned with glory and honor because he suffered death, so that by the grace of God he might taste death for everyone. {10} In bringing many sons to glory, it was fitting that God, for whom and through whom everything exists, should make the author of their salvation perfect through suffering. {11} Both the one who makes men holy and those who are made holy are of the same family. So Jesus is not ashamed to call them brothers. {12} He says, "I will declare your name to my brothers; in the presence of the congregation I will sing your praises." {13} And again, "I will put my trust in him." And again he says, "Here am I, and the children God has given me." {14} Since the children have flesh and blood, he too shared in their humanity so that by his death he might destroy him who holds the power of death--that is, the devil-- {15} and free those who all their lives were held in slavery by their fear of death. {16} For surely it is not angels he helps, but Abraham's descendants. {17} For this reason he had to be made like his brothers in every way, in order that he might become a merciful and faithful high priest in service to God, and that he might make atonement for the sins of the people. {18} Because he himself suffered when he was tempted, he is able to help those who are being tempted.

(Heb 3 NIV) Therefore, holy brothers, who share in the heavenly calling, fix your thoughts on Jesus, the apostle and high priest whom we confess. {2} He was faithful to the one who appointed him, just as Moses was faithful in all God's house. {3} Jesus has been found worthy of greater honor than Moses, just as the builder of a house has greater honor than the house itself. {4} For every house is built by someone, but God is the builder of everything. {5} Moses was faithful as a servant in all God's house, testifying to what would be said in the future. {6} But Christ is faithful as a son over God's house. And we are his house, if we hold on to our courage and the hope of which we boast. {7} So, as the Holy Spirit says: "Today, if you hear his voice, {8} do not harden your hearts as you did in the rebellion, during the time of testing in the desert, {9} where your fathers tested and tried me and for forty years saw what I did. {10} That is why I was angry with that generation, and I said, 'Their hearts are always going astray, and they have not known my ways.' {11} So I declared on oath in my anger, 'They shall never enter my rest.'" {12} See to it, brothers, that none of you has a sinful, unbelieving heart that turns away from the living God. {13} But encourage one another daily, as long as it is called Today, so that none of you may be hardened by sin's deceitfulness. {14} We have come to share in Christ if we hold firmly till the end the confidence we had at first. {15} As has just been said: "Today, if you hear his voice, do not harden your hearts as you did in the rebellion." {16} Who were they who heard and rebelled? Were they not all those Moses led out of Egypt? {17} And with whom was he angry for forty years? Was it not with those who sinned, whose bodies fell in the desert? {18} And to whom did God swear that they would never enter his rest if not to those who disobeyed ? {19} So we see that they were not able to enter, because of their unbelief.


Date and place: Written from Rome (Italy v13:24) about 68 AD

Author: Probably Paul for these reasons

The thoughts and reasonings are Paul

  1. It is ascribed to him by over 100 ancient writers from 70 to 730 AD
  2. It was received as Paul's by the council of Laodicea (363 A.D.), the council of Carthage (397), by the Syrian churches (370), and generally by the Greeks and Eastern churches from the earliest centuries.